Combustor

Abstract

A combustor includes a cap assembly that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the cap assembly includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and a combustion chamber downstream from the cap assembly. A plurality of tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface of the cap assembly, and each tube provides fluid communication through the cap assembly to the combustion chamber. The downstream surface is sloped at an angle with respect to the upstream surface.

Claims

What is claimed is: 1. A combustor comprising: a cap assembly that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the cap assembly comprises an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface along an axial centerline; a combustion chamber downstream from the cap assembly; a plurality of tubes that extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface of the cap assembly, wherein each tube provides fluid communication through the cap assembly to the combustion chamber; and wherein the entire downstream surface is sloped at an angle with respect to the upstream surface towards the axial centerline, and wherein the slope of the entire downstream surface is one of downstream or upstream from an outer perimeter of the cap assembly. 2. The combustor as in claim 1 , wherein the downstream surface is sloped downstream from an outer perimeter of the cap assembly. 3. The combustor as in claim 1 , wherein the downstream surface has a concave curvature. 4. The combustor as in claim 1 , wherein the downstream surface has a convex curvature. 5. The combustor as in claim 1 , wherein each tube comprises an outlet proximate to the downstream surface, and the outlet defines a non-circular cross-section. 6. The combustor as in claim 1 , further comprising a barrier that extends radially inside the cap assembly between the upstream and downstream surfaces to separate a fuel plenum from a fluid plenum inside the cap assembly. 7. The combustor as in claim 6 , further comprising a plurality of fluid ports through the downstream surface, wherein the plurality of fluid ports provides fluid communication from the fluid plenum through the downstream surface. 8. The combustor as in claim 6 , further comprising a plurality of fuel ports through the plurality of tubes, wherein the plurality of fuel ports provides fluid communication from the fuel plenum through the plurality of tubes. 9. The combustor as in claim 1 , further comprising a fuel nozzle substantially aligned with an axial centerline of the cap assembly, wherein the plurality of tubes circumferentially surround the fuel nozzle. 10. A combustor comprising: a cap assembly that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the cap assembly comprises an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface along an axial centerline; a combustion chamber downstream from the cap assembly; and a plurality of tubes that extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface of the cap assembly, wherein each tube comprises an inlet proximate to the upstream surface, an outlet proximate to the downstream surface, and the outlet is sloped at an angle with respect to the inlet, and wherein the entire downstream surface is sloped at an angle with respect to the upstream surface towards the axial centerline, and wherein the slope of the entire downstream surface is one of downstream or upstream from an outer perimeter of the cap assembly. 11. The combustor as in claim 10 , wherein each outlet s sloped downstream from an outer perimeter of the cap assembly. 12. The combustor as in claim 10 , wherein each outlet has a concave curvature. 13. The combustor as in claim 10 , wherein each outlet has a convex curvature. 14. The combustor as in claim 10 , wherein the downstream surface has a concave curvature.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention generally involves a combustor such as may be incorporated into a gas turbine or other turbo-machine. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Combustors are commonly used in industrial and power generation operations to ignite fuel to produce combustion gases having a high temperature and pressure. For example, gas turbines typically include one or more combustors to generate power or thrust. A typical gas turbine used to generate electrical power includes an axial compressor at the front, one or more combustors around the middle, and a turbine at the rear. Ambient air may be supplied to the compressor, and rotating blades and stationary vanes in the compressor progressively impart kinetic energy to the working fluid (air) to produce a compressed working fluid at a highly energized state. The compressed working fluid exits the compressor and flows through one or more fuel nozzles into a combustion chamber in each combustor where the compressed working fluid mixes with fuel and ignites to generate combustion gases having a high temperature and pressure. The combustion gases expand in the turbine to produce work. For example, expansion of the combustion gases in the turbine may rotate a shaft connected to a generator to produce electricity. Various design and operating parameters influence the design and operation of combustors. For example, higher combustion gas temperatures generally improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the combustor. However, higher combustion gas temperatures also promote flame holding conditions in which the combustion flame migrates toward the fuel being supplied by the fuel nozzles, possibly causing accelerated wear to the fuel nozzles in a relatively short amount of time. In addition, higher combustion gas temperatures generally increase the disassociation rate of diatomic nitrogen, increasing the production of nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Conversely, a lower combustion gas temperature associated with reduced fuel flow and/or part load operation (turndown) generally reduces the chemical reaction rates of the combustion gases, increasing the production of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. In a particular combustor design, a plurality of tubes may be radially arranged in a cap assembly to provide fluid communication for the working fluid and fuel through the cap assembly and into the combustion chamber. Although effective at enabling higher operating temperatures while protecting against flame holding and controlling undesirable emissions, some fuels and operating conditions produce very high frequencies in the combustor. Increased vibrations in the combustor associated with high frequencies may reduce the useful life of one or more combustor components. Alternately, or in addition, high frequencies of combustion dynamics may produce pressure pulses inside the tubes and/or combustion chamber that may adversely affect the stability of the combustion flame, reduce the design margins for flame holding, and/or increase undesirable emissions. Therefore, a system that reduces resonant frequencies in the combustor would be useful to enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency of the combustor, protecting the combustor from accelerated wear, promoting flame stability, and/or reducing undesirable emissions over a wide range of combustor operating levels. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Aspects and advantages of the invention are set forth below in the following description, or may be obvious from the description, or may be learned through practice of the invention. One embodiment of the present invention is a combustor that includes a cap assembly that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the cap assembly includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and a combustion chamber downstream from the cap assembly. A plurality of tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface of the cap assembly, and each tube provides fluid communication through the cap assembly to the combustion chamber. The downstream surface is sloped at an angle with respect to the upstream surface. Another embodiment of the present invention is a combustor that includes a cap assembly that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the cap assembly comprises an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and a combustion chamber downstream from the cap assembly. A plurality of tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface of the cap assembly. Each tube includes an inlet proximate to the upstream surface, an outlet proximate to the downstream surface, and the outlet is sloped at an angle with respect to the inlet. The present invention may also include a combustor that includes a cap assembly that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the cap assembly comprises an axial centerline and an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A fuel nozzle is substantially aligned with the axial centerline of the cap assembly. A plurality of tubes are circumferentially arranged around the fuel nozzle and extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface of the cap assembly. Each tube comprises an inlet proximate to the upstream surface, an outlet proximate to the downstream surface, and the outlet is sloped at an angle with respect to the inlet. Those of ordinary skill in the art will better appreciate the features and aspects of such embodiments, and others, upon review of the specification. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS A full and enabling disclosure of the present invention, including the best mode thereof to one skilled in the art, is set forth more particularly in the remainder of the specification, including reference to the accompanying figures, in which: FIG. 1 is a simplified cross-section view of an exemplary combustor according to various embodiments of the present invention; FIG. 2 is an upstream plan view of the cap assembly shown in FIG. 1 according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 3 is an upstream plan view of the cap assembly shown in FIG. 1 according to an alternate embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 4 is an upstream plan view of the cap assembly shown in FIG. 1 according to an alternate embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 5 is an upstream plan view of the cap assembly shown in FIG. 1 according to an alternate embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 6 is a side cross-section view of the head end of the combustor shown in FIG. 4 taken along line A-A according to a first embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 7 is an upstream partial perspective and cross-section view of the cap assembly shown in FIG. 2 according to a second embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 8 is a side cross-section view of the head end of the combustor shown in FIG. 5 taken along line B-B according to a third embodiment of the present invention; and FIG. 9 is an upstream partial perspective and cross-section view of the cap assembly shown in FIG. 3 according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Reference will now be made in detail to present embodiments of the invention, one or more examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. The detailed description uses numerical and letter designations to refer to features in the drawings. Like or similar designations in the drawings and description have been used to refer to like or similar parts of the invention. As used herein, the terms “first”, “second”, and “third” may be used interchangeably to distinguish one component from another and are not intended to signify location or importance of the individual components. In addition, the terms “upstream” and “downstream” refer to the relative location of components in a fluid pathway. For example, component A is upstream from component B if a fluid flows from component A to component B. Conversely, component B is downstream from component A if component B receives a fluid flow from component A. Each example is provided by way of explanation of the invention, not limitation of the invention. In fact, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that modifications and variations can be made in the present invention without departing from the scope or spirit thereof. For instance, features illustrated or described as part of one embodiment may be used on another embodiment to yield a still further embodiment. Thus, it is intended that the present invention covers such modifications and variations as come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents. Various embodiments of the present invention include a combustor that reduces combustion dynamics while enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency, promoting flame stability, and/or reducing undesirable emissions over a wide range of combustor operating levels. In general, a cap assembly may extend radially across at least a portion of the combustor, and a plurality of tubes radially arranged across the cap assembly may provide fluid communication through the cap assembly to a combustion chamber downstream from the cap assembly. In particular embodiments, a downstream surface of the cap assembly may be sloped to produce tubes of varying length across the cap assembly. Alternately or in addition, an outlet of the tubes may be sloped. The different tube lengths and/or sloped outlets may decouple the natural frequency of the combustion dynamics, reduce flow instabilities, and/or axially distribute the combustion flame across the downstream surface of the cap assembly. As a result, various embodiments of the present invention may allow extended combustor operating conditions, extend the life and/or maintenance intervals for various combustor components, maintain adequate design margins of flame holding, and/or reduce undesirable emissions. Although exemplary embodiments of the present invention will be described generally in the context of a combustor incorporated into a gas turbine for purposes of illustration, one of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate that embodiments of the present invention may be applied to any combustor and are not limited to a gas turbine combustor unless specifically recited in the claims. FIG. 1 shows a simplified cross-section view of an exemplary combustor 10 , such as may be included in a gas turbine or other turbo-machine, according to various embodiments of the present invention. The combustor 10 generally includes a casing 12 that circumferentially surrounds at least a portion of the combustor 10 to contain a working fluid flowing to the combustor 10 . As shown in FIG. 1 , the casing 12 may be connected to or include an end cover or breech end 14 that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor 10 to provide an interface for supplying fuel, diluents, and/or other additives to the combustor 10 . In addition, the casing 12 and breech end 14 may combine to at least partially define a head end 16 inside the combustor 10 . A cap assembly 18 downstream from the head end 16 may extend radially across at least a portion of the combustor 10 , and a liner 20 connected to the cap assembly 18 may at least partially define a combustion chamber 22 downstream from the cap assembly 18 . A working fluid 24 may flow, for example, through flow holes 26 in an impingement sleeve 28 and along the outside of the liner 20 to provide convective cooling to the liner 20 . When the working fluid 24 reaches the head end 16 , the working fluid 24 reverses direction to flow through the cap assembly 18 and into the combustion chamber 22 . The cap assembly 18 generally includes a plurality of tubes 30 and/or one or more fuel nozzles 32 that provide fluid communication through the cap assembly 18 and into the combustion chamber 22 . Although generally shown as cylindrical, the radial cross-section of the tubes 30 and/or fuel nozzles 32 may be any geometric shape, and the present invention is not limited to any particular radial cross-section unless specifically recited in the claims. In addition, various embodiments of the combustor 10 may include different numbers and arrangements of tubes 30 and fuel nozzles 32 in the cap assembly 18 , and FIGS. 2-5 provide upstream plan views of exemplary arrangements of the tubes 30 and fuel nozzles 32 in the cap assembly 18 within the scope of the present invention. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 , for example, the tubes 30 may be radially arranged across the entire cap assembly 18 , and the tubes 30 may be divided into various groups to facilitate multiple fueling regimes over the combustor's 10 range of operations. For example, the tubes 30 may be grouped in a plurality of circular tube bundles 34 that circumferentially surround a center tube bundle 36 , as shown in FIG. 2 . Alternately, as shown in FIG. 3 , a plurality of pie-shaped tube bundles 38 may circumferentially surround the center tube bundle 36 . During base load operations, fuel may be supplied to each tube bundle 34 , 36 , 38 , while fuel flow may be reduced or completely eliminated from the center tube bundle 36 and/or one or more circumferentially arranged circular or pie-shaped tube bundles 34 , 38 during reduced or turndown operations. In the particular embodiments shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 , the fuel nozzle 32 is substantially aligned with an axial centerline 40 of the cap assembly 18 , and the circular and pie-shaped tube bundles 34 , 38 are circumferentially arranged around the fuel nozzle 32 , respectively. As with the embodiments shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 , fuel may be supplied to the fuel nozzle 32 and each tube bundle 34 , 38 during base load operations, while fuel flow may be reduced or completely eliminated from the fuel nozzle 32 and/or one or more circumferentially arranged circular or pie-shaped tube bundles 34 , 38 during reduced or turndown operations. One of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate multiple other shapes and arrangements for the tube bundles from the teachings herein, and the particular shape and arrangement of the tube bundles is not a limitation of the present limitation unless specifically recited in the claims. FIGS. 6-9 provide side cross-section views or upstream partial perspective and cross-section views of various embodiments within the scope of the present invention. In each embodiment, the cap assembly 18 includes a sloped downstream surface 42 and/or the tubes 30 include sloped outlets that result in tubes 30 of varying axial lengths across the cap assembly 18 . The direction and curvature of the slope in the downstream surface 42 and/or tube outlets may vary according to particular embodiments. In some embodiments, for example, the downstream surface 42 and/or tube outlets may be sloped downstream from an outer perimeter 46 of the cap assembly 18 , while in other embodiments the downstream surface 42 and/or tube outlets may be sloped upstream from the outer perimeter 46 of the cap assembly 18 . Similarly, the downstream surface 42 and/or tube outlets may be concave or convex, depending on the particular embodiment. FIG. 6 provides a side cross-section view of a portion of the combustor 10 shown in FIG. 4 taken along line A-A according to a first embodiment of the present invention. As shown, the cap assembly 18 extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor 10 and includes an upstream surface 48 axially separated from the downstream surface 42 . The upstream surface 48 may be generally flat or straight and oriented perpendicular to the general flow of the working fluid 24 through the cap assembly 18 . In contrast, the downstream surface 42 may be sloped at an angle with respect to the upstream surface 48 . In the particular embodiment shown in FIG. 6 , the downstream surface 42 is sloped downstream from the outer perimeter 46 of the cap assembly 18 , and the angle of the slope may vary between 10 and 75 degrees, depending on the particular embodiment and location in the combustor 10 . In the particular embodiment shown in FIG. 6 , the fuel nozzle 32 is substantially aligned with the axial centerline 40 of the cap assembly 18 and extends through the cap assembly 18 to provide fluid communication through the cap assembly 18 to the combustion chamber 22 . The fuel nozzle 32 may include any suitable structure known to one of ordinary skill in the art for mixing fuel with the working fluid 24 prior to entry into the combustion chamber 22 , and the present invention is not limited to any particular structure or design unless specifically recited in the claims. For example, as shown in FIG. 6 , the fuel nozzle 32 may include a center body 50 and a bellmouth opening 52 . The center body 50 may provide fluid communication for fuel to flow from the end cover 14 , through the center body 50 , and into the combustion chamber 22 . The bellmouth opening 52 may surround at least a portion of the center body 50 to define an annular passage 54 between the center body 50 and the bellmouth opening 52 . In this manner, the working fluid 24 may flow through the annular passage 54 to mix with the fuel from the center body 50 prior to reaching the combustion chamber 22 . If desired, the fuel nozzle 32 may further include one or more swirler vanes 56 that extend radially between the center body 50 and the bellmouth opening 52 to impart swirl to the fuel-working fluid mixture prior to reaching the combustion chamber 22 . As shown in FIGS. 4 and 6 , the tubes 30 may be circumferentially arranged around the fuel nozzle 32 and extend from the upstream surface 48 through the downstream surface 42 of the cap assembly 18 . Each tube 30 generally includes an inlet 60 proximate to the upstream surface 48 and an outlet 62 proximate to the downstream surface 42 . As shown in FIG. 6 , the tube inlets and outlets 60 , 62 may be flush with the upstream and downstream surfaces 48 , 42 , respectively. As a result, adjacent tubes 30 may have different axial lengths, and each outlet 62 may be sloped at an angle with respect to the corresponding inlet 60 . In the particular embodiment shown in FIG. 6 , each outlet 62 is sloped downstream from the outer perimeter 46 of the cap assembly 18 , resulting in longer tubes 30 toward the center of the cap assembly 18 and non-circular cross-sections for each outlet 62 . As further shown in FIG. 6 , a barrier 64 may extend radially inside the cap assembly 18 between the upstream and downstream surfaces 48 , 42 to separate a fuel plenum 66 from a fluid plenum 68 inside the cap assembly 18 . A fuel conduit 70 may extend from the casing 12 and/or end cover 14 through the upstream surface 48 to provide fluid communication for fuel to flow into the fuel plenum 66 . One or more of the tubes 30 may include a fuel port 72 that provides fluid communication from the fuel plenum 66 through the one or more tubes 30 . The fuel ports 72 may be angled radially, axially, and/or azimuthally to project and/or impart swirl to the fuel flowing through the fuel ports 72 and into the tubes 30 . The working fluid 24 may thus flow into the tube inlets 60 , and fuel from the fuel conduit 70 may flow around the tubes 30 in the fuel plenum 66 to provide convective cooling to the tubes 30 before flowing through the fuel ports 72 and into the tubes 30 to mix with the working fluid 24 . The fuel-working fluid mixture may then flow through the tubes 30 and into the combustion chamber 22 . In addition, fluid passages 74 provide fluid communication through a shroud 76 surrounding the cap assembly 18 into the fluid plenum 68 . In this manner, the working fluid 24 may flow through the fluid passages 74 and around the tubes 30 to provide convective cooling to the tubes 30 in the fluid plenum 68 before flowing through fluid ports 78 in the downstream surface 42 to cool the downstream surface 42 adjacent to the combustion chamber 22 . In addition to cooling the downstream surface 42 , the working fluid 24 supplied through the downstream surface 42 further assists in decoupling the natural frequency of the combustion dynamics, tailoring flow instabilities, and/or axially distributing the combustion flame across the downstream surface 42 of the tube bundles 34 , 38 to reduce NO X production. The combination of the sloped outlets 62 , non-circular cross-sections of the outlets 62 , and varying axial lengths of the tubes 30 produces slightly different convection times for fuel and working fluid 24 flowing through each tube 30 . The slightly different convection times, varying axial positions of the outlets 62 , and/or working fluid 24 flow through the fluid ports 78 may reduce interaction between adjacent flames, resulting in reduced combustion dynamics and more stable combustion flames. The different axial lengths of the tubes 30 produced by the sloped downstream surface 42 and/or tube outlets 62 thus decouple the natural frequency of the combustion dynamics, tailor flow instabilities downstream from the downstream surface 42 , and/or axially distribute the combustion flame across the downstream surface 42 of the tubes 30 to reduce NO X production during base load operations. In addition, during turndown operations when only working fluid 24 may flow through the center fuel nozzle 32 , the slope of the tube outlets 62 may reduce or prevent the working fluid 24 flowing through the center fuel nozzle 32 from prematurely quenching the combustion flame associated with the adjacent tube outlets 62 , reducing the production of carbon monoxide and other unburned hydrocarbons during turndown operations. FIG. 7 provides an upstream partial perspective and cross-section view of the cap assembly 18 shown in FIG. 2 according to a second embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment may again include the upstream surface 48 , tubes 30 , barrier 64 , fuel plenum 66 , and fluid plenum 68 as previously described with respect to FIG. 6 . In this particular embodiment, the downstream surface 42 is again sloped downstream from the outer perimeter 46 of the cap assembly 18 , and the downstream surface 42 is also convex. As a result, adjacent tubes 30 may again have different axial lengths, with longer tubes 30 toward the center of the cap assembly 18 . In addition, each outlet 62 may be sloped at an angle with respect to the corresponding inlet 60 with a convex curvature and non-circular cross-section. FIG. 8 provides a side cross-section view of a portion of the combustor shown in FIG. 5 taken along line B-B according to a third embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment may again include the upstream surface 48 , tubes 30 , barrier 64 , fuel plenum 66 , and fluid plenum 68 as previously described with respect to FIG. 6 . In this particular embodiment, the downstream surface 42 is sloped upstream from the outer perimeter 46 of the cap assembly 18 . As a result, adjacent tubes 30 may again have different axial lengths, with longer tubes 30 toward the outer perimeter 46 of the cap assembly 18 . In addition, each outlet 62 may be sloped at an angle with respect to the corresponding inlet 60 with a non-circular cross-section. FIG. 9 provides an upstream partial perspective and cross-section view of the cap assembly 18 shown in FIG. 3 according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment may again include the upstream surface 48 , tubes 30 , barrier 64 , fuel plenum 66 , and fluid plenum 68 as previously described with respect to FIG. 6 . In this particular embodiment, the downstream surface 42 is again sloped upstream from the outer perimeter 46 of the cap assembly 18 , and the downstream surface 42 is also concave. As a result, adjacent tubes 30 may again have different axial lengths, with longer tubes 30 toward the outer perimeter 46 of the cap assembly 18 . In addition, each outlet 62 may be sloped at an angle with respect to the corresponding inlet 60 with a concave curvature and non-circular cross-section. The various embodiments described and illustrated with respect to FIGS. 1-9 may provide one or more of the following advantages over existing nozzles and combustors. Specifically, the sloped downstream surface 42 , different axial lengths of the tubes 30 , sloped tube outlets 62 , and/or fluid ports 78 , alone or in various combinations may decouple the natural frequency of the combustion dynamics, tailor flow instabilities, and/or axially distribute the combustion flame across the downstream surface 42 of the tubes 30 to reduce NO X production during base load operations and/or carbon monoxide and other unburned hydrocarbon production during turndown operations. This written description uses examples to disclose the invention, including the best mode, and also to enable any person skilled in the art to practice the invention, including making and using any devices or systems and performing any incorporated methods. The patentable scope of the invention is defined by the claims, and may include other examples that occur to those skilled in the art. Such other and examples are intended to be within the scope of the claims if they include structural elements that do not differ from the literal language of the claims, or if they include equivalent structural elements with insubstantial differences from the literal languages of the claims.

Description

Topics

Download Full PDF Version (Non-Commercial Use)

Patent Citations (78)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-7003958-B2February 28, 2006General Electric CompanyMulti-sided diffuser for a venturi in a fuel injector for a gas turbine
    US-8141334-B2March 27, 2012General Electric CompanyApparatus and filtering systems relating to combustors in combustion turbine engines
    US-5104310-AApril 14, 1992Aga AktiebolagMethod for reducing the flame temperature of a burner and burner intended therefor
    US-2009297996-A1December 03, 2009Advanced Burner Technologies CorporationFuel injector for low NOx furnace
    US-6301899-B1October 16, 2001General Electric CompanyMixer having intervane fuel injection
    US-2010089367-A1April 15, 2010General Electric CompanyFuel nozzle assembly
    US-5439532-AAugust 08, 1995Jx Crystals, Inc.Cylindrical electric power generator using low bandgap thermophotovolatic cells and a regenerative hydrocarbon gas burner
    US-2010180600-A1July 22, 2010General Electric CompanyNozzle for a turbomachine
    US-8147121-B2April 03, 2012General Electric CompanyPre-mixing apparatus for a turbine engine
    US-5205120-AApril 27, 1993Mercedes-Benz AgMixture-compressing internal-combustion engine with secondary-air injection and with air-mass metering in the suction pipe
    US-2012006030-A1January 12, 2012General Electric CompanyInjection nozzle for a turbomachine
    US-8104284-B2January 31, 2012Hitachi, Ltd.Combustor and a fuel supply method for the combustor
    US-7540154-B2June 02, 2009Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.Gas turbine combustor
    US-2010287942-A1November 18, 2010General Electric CompanyDry Low NOx Combustion System with Pre-Mixed Direct-Injection Secondary Fuel Nozzle
    US-5251447-AOctober 12, 1993General Electric CompanyAir fuel mixer for gas turbine combustor
    US-7752850-B2July 13, 2010Siemens Energy, Inc.Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor
    US-8007274-B2August 30, 2011General Electric CompanyFuel nozzle assembly
    US-5235814-AAugust 17, 1993General Electric CompanyFlashback resistant fuel staged premixed combustor
    US-4104873-AAugust 08, 1978The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The United States National Aeronautics And Space AdministrationFuel delivery system including heat exchanger means
    US-7721547-B2May 25, 2010Siemens Energy, Inc.Combustion transition duct providing stage 1 tangential turning for turbine engines
    US-6098407-AAugust 08, 2000United Technologies CorporationPremixing fuel injector with improved secondary fuel-air injection
    US-4100733-AJuly 18, 1978United Technologies CorporationPremix combustor
    US-2010024426-A1February 04, 2010General Electric CompanyHybrid Fuel Nozzle
    US-2008304958-A1December 11, 2008Norris James W, Berryann Andrew PGas turbine engine with air and fuel cooling system
    US-2008053097-A1March 06, 2008Fei Han, Iyer Venkatraman Ananthakrishm, Mcmanus Keith Robert, Edip SevincerInjection assembly for a combustor
    US-2010236247-A1September 23, 2010General Electric CompanyMethod and apparatus for delivery of a fuel and combustion air mixture to a gas turbine engine
    US-6438961-B2August 27, 2002General Electric CompanySwozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion
    US-5685139-ANovember 11, 1997General Electric CompanyDiffusion-premix nozzle for a gas turbine combustor and related method
    US-2010101229-A1April 29, 2010General Electric CompanyFlame Holding Tolerant Fuel and Air Premixer for a Gas Turbine Combustor
    US-2008302105-A1December 11, 2008Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki KaishaCombustor of a gas turbine engine
    US-5341645-AAugust 30, 1994Societe National D'etude Et De Construction De Moteurs D'aviation (S.N.E.C.M.A.)Fuel/oxidizer premixing combustion chamber
    US-2008016876-A1January 24, 2008General Electric CompanyMethod and apparatus for reducing gas turbine engine emissions
    US-2010060391-A1March 11, 2010Raute OyjWaveguide element
    US-6796790-B2September 28, 2004John Zink Company LlcHigh capacity/low NOx radiant wall burner
    US-2010252652-A1October 07, 2010General Electric CompanyPremixing direct injector
    US-6394791-B2May 28, 2002Precision Combustion, Inc.Method and apparatus for a fuel-rich catalytic reactor
    US-6672073-B2January 06, 2004Siemens Westinghouse Power CorporationSystem and method for supporting fuel nozzles in a gas turbine combustor utilizing a support plate
    US-4845952-AJuly 11, 1989General Electric CompanyMultiple venturi tube gas fuel injector for catalytic combustor
    US-2010192581-A1August 05, 2010General Electricity CompanyPremixed direct injection nozzle
    US-2010186413-A1July 29, 2010General Electric CompanyBundled multi-tube nozzle for a turbomachine
    US-7886991-B2February 15, 2011General Electric CompanyPremixed direct injection nozzle
    US-2010087394-A1April 08, 2010Roland TwydellCompositions Containing Betaine and Hydrophobic Silica
    US-7732899-B1June 08, 2010Amkor Technology, Inc.Etch singulated semiconductor package
    US-2010031662-A1February 11, 2010General Electric CompanyTurbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system
    US-5213494-AMay 25, 1993Rothenberger Werkzeuge-Maschinen GmbhPortable burner for fuel gas with two mixer tubes
    US-5707591-AJanuary 13, 1998Gec Alsthom Stein IndustrieCirculating fluidized bed reactor having extensions to its heat exchange area
    US-5930999-AAugust 03, 1999General Electric CompanyFuel injector and multi-swirler carburetor assembly
    US-7107772-B2September 19, 2006United Technologies CorporationMulti-point staging strategy for low emission and stable combustion
    US-5020329-AJune 04, 1991General Electric CompanyFuel delivery system
    US-2012079829-A1April 05, 2012General Electric CompanyTurbomachine including a mixing tube element having a vortex generator
    US-8112999-B2February 14, 2012General Electric CompanyTurbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system
    US-5603213-AFebruary 18, 1997Societe Europeenne De PropulsionInjection system with concentric slits and the associated injection elements
    US-8157189-B2April 17, 2012General Electric CompanyPremixing direct injector
    US-2010008179-A1January 14, 2010General Electric CompanyPre-mixing apparatus for a turbine engine
    US-2010139280-A1June 10, 2010General Electric CompanyMulti-tube thermal fuse for nozzle protection from a flame holding or flashback event
    US-2011073684-A1March 31, 2011Thomas Edward Johnson, Benjamin Lacy, Christian StevensonInternal baffling for fuel injector
    US-2011089266-A1April 21, 2011General Electric CompanyFuel nozzle lip seals
    US-6123542-ASeptember 26, 2000American Air Liquide, L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et, L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges ClaudeSelf-cooled oxygen-fuel burner for use in high-temperature and high-particulate furnaces
    US-7343745-B2March 18, 2008Hitachi, Ltd.Gas turbine combustor and operating method thereof
    US-2011016871-A1January 27, 2011General Electric CompanyGas turbine premixing systems
    US-4429527-AFebruary 07, 1984Teets J MichaelTurbine engine with combustor premix system
    US-4412414-ANovember 01, 1983General Motors CorporationHeavy fuel combustor
    US-3771500-ANovember 13, 1973H ShakibaRotary engine
    US-2011265482-A1November 03, 2011Nishant Govindbhai Parsania, Gregory Allen BoardmanPocketed air and fuel mixing tube
    US-2011083439-A1April 14, 2011General Electric CorporationStaged Multi-Tube Premixing Injector
    US-7426833-B2September 23, 2008Hitachi, Ltd.Gas turbine combustor and fuel supply method for same
    US-8181891-B2May 22, 2012General Electric CompanyMonolithic fuel injector and related manufacturing method
    US-6983600-B1January 10, 2006General Electric CompanyMulti-venturi tube fuel injector for gas turbine combustors
    US-2010084490-A1April 08, 2010General Electric CompanyPremixed Direct Injection Nozzle
    US-2011072824-A1March 31, 2011General Electric CompanyAppartus and method for a gas turbine nozzle
    US-2010095676-A1April 22, 2010General Electric CompanyMultiple Tube Premixing Device
    US-2004216463-A1November 04, 2004Harris Mark M.Combustor system for an expendable gas turbine engine
    US-7007478-B2March 07, 2006General Electric CompanyMulti-venturi tube fuel injector for a gas turbine combustor
    US-233397-AOctober 19, 1880Peters
    US-5592819-AJanuary 14, 1997Societe Nationale D'etude Et De Construction De Moteurs D'aviation S.N.E.C.M.A.Pre-mixing injection system for a turbojet engine
    US-7631499-B2December 15, 2009Siemens Energy, Inc.Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine
    US-2005050895-A1March 10, 2005Thomas Dorr, Leif RackwitzHomogenous mixture formation by swirled fuel injection
    US-2010218501-A1September 02, 2010General Electric CompanyPremixed direct injection disk

NO-Patent Citations (1)

    Title
    Mohamad Shaiful Ashrul Ishak Mohammad Nazri Mohd. Jaafrar, "The Effect of Swirl Number on Discharge Coefficient for Various Orifice Sizes in a Burner System" Journal Mekanikal, Jun. 2004, Bil. 17, 99-108.

Cited By (4)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-2014144150-A1May 29, 2014General Electric CompanyFuel nozzle for use in a turbine engine and method of assembly
    US-2014157779-A1June 12, 2014General Electric CompanySYSTEM FOR REDUCING COMBUSTION DYNAMICS AND NOx IN A COMBUSTOR
    US-9353950-B2May 31, 2016General Electric CompanySystem for reducing combustion dynamics and NOx in a combustor
    US-9677766-B2June 13, 2017General Electric CompanyFuel nozzle for use in a turbine engine and method of assembly